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with n being the expected power plant lifetime, i.e., the number of annuities received.
The specific costs for the combined-cycle power plants are much lower than for the autonomous MSW power plant. Table 4 presents the annual capital cost, operating, and maintenance costs, and the cost of electricity (COE) calculated from the equation for COE. Currently, the tipping fee for MSW disposal is typically around $84 in Canada. The results in Table 4 show the gas turbine and MSW-boiler-hybrid combined cycles for power production are economically competitive.
Gas turbine and MSW-boiler-hybrid combined cycles are an effective approach to recovering energy from MSW more efficiently. The combined cycles have many advantages over separate single-fuel power plants and can dramatically increase the efficiency of EfW conversion.
The calculated MSW-based efficiency and marginal efficiency reveal that MSW and natural gas are utilized with higher efficiency in the hybrid combined cycles compared to separate single-fuel power systems. The major benefits of the hybrid combined cycles include: increased power output, increased energy conversion efficiency for bottoming fuel and topping fuel, reduced environmental loading, reduced specific CO2 emissions, emergency power, and reduced specific investment.
Simulations showed that different integration schemes were possible. Generally, the efficiency depends on the configuration of combined cycles, component arrangements, gas and solid fuel ratio and parameters of the bottoming water/steam cycle. The hybrid combined cycles could reduce net CO2 emissions for power production. The reduction in CO2 emissions by a combined cycle considered in this study was estimated at 0.59 kg/kWh (about 62 percent reduction) when referring to coal-fired power plants.
Finally, cost analyses show that the dual-fuel hybrid combined cycles are economically competitive for electric power generation.
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3. Consonni S. Combined cycles for high performance, low cost, low environmental impact waste-to-energy systems. Proceedings of ASME TURBOEXPO, Munich, Germany, 2000.
4. Petrov MP, Hunyadi L. Municipal solid waste boiler and gas turbine hybrid combined cycles performance analysis. 1st International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, Porto, Portugal, 2002
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Dr. Kuanrong Qiu is physical scientist at CANMET Energy Technology Centre - Ottawa. He has more than 20 years experience in the efficient use of energy, clean combustion technology, combined cycles, and emissions reduction. His work with CANMET Energy Technology Centre - Ottawa focuses on integrating energy systems with the goal of increasing energy efficiency and reducing the emissions (including greenhouse gases) of residential and commercial systems. He also carries out applied R&D related to hybrid combined cycles for power production, and advanced combustion systems. He has published more than 60 technical papers and authored two books.
A.C. Skip Hayden is senior research scientist and deputy S&T director, Integrated Energy Systems at CANMET Energy Technology Centre - Ottawa. He has been carrying out applied R&D on efficient industrial, commercial, and residential combustion systems for more than 30 years. He is the author of five books, more than 200 technical publications, numerous consumer guides and more than 700 presentations related to the clean, efficient use of energy. To contact the authors, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
** Editor's Note: This article was edited from its original format and was printed with permission from ASME. The original paper, POWER 2007-22183, was published in the Proceedings of ASME Power 2007, July 17-19, San Antonio, Texas. To read this paper in its entirety - which will include the introduction, other text, images, and tables not published in this article - you may purchase a PDF in both digital and print formats. For more details, contact email@example.com. Or, you may purchase the PDF at the ASME Digital Store, www.asme.org.Nomenclature
MSW municipal solid waste
EfW energy from waste
GHG green house gas
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